Not necessarily relevant to anything in today’s news, but fascinating

amazons 

Colossal Bronze Age battlefield discovered in “the backwaters” of Northern Europe.

I recommend reading the entire article,but here are a few excerpts to whet the appetite:

About 3200 years ago, two armies clashed at a river crossing near the Baltic Sea. The confrontation can’t be found in any history books—the written word didn’t become common in these parts for another 2000 years—but this was no skirmish between local clans. Thousands of warriors came together in a brutal struggle, perhaps fought on a single day, using weapons crafted from wood, flint, and bronze, a metal that was then the height of military technology.

Struggling to find solid footing on the banks of the Tollense River, a narrow ribbon of water that flows through the marshes of northern Germany toward the Baltic Sea, the armies fought hand-to-hand, maiming and killing with war clubs, spears, swords, and knives. Bronze- and flint-tipped arrows were loosed at close range, piercing skulls and lodging deep into the bones of young men. Horses belonging to high-ranking warriors crumpled into the muck, fatally speared. Not everyone stood their ground in the melee: Some warriors broke and ran, and were struck down from behind.

When the fighting was through, hundreds lay dead, littering the swampy valley. Some bodies were stripped of their valuables and left bobbing in shallow ponds; others sank to the bottom, protected from plundering by a meter or two of water. Peat slowly settled over the bones. Within centuries, the entire battle was forgotten.

In 1996, an amateur archaeologist found a single upper arm bone sticking out of the steep riverbank—the first clue that the Tollense Valley, about 120 kilometers north of Berlin, concealed a gruesome secret. A flint arrowhead was firmly embedded in one end of the bone, prompting archaeologists to dig a small test excavation that yielded more bones, a bashed-in skull, and a 73-centimeter club resembling a baseball bat. The artifacts all were radiocarbon-dated to about 1250 B.C.E., suggesting they stemmed from a single episode during Europe’s Bronze Age.

Now, after a series of excavations between 2009 and 2015, researchers have begun to understand the battle and its startling implications for Bronze Age society. Along a 3-kilometer stretch of the Tollense River, archaeologists from the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Department of Historic Preservation (MVDHP) and the University of Greifswald (UG) have unearthed wooden clubs, bronze spearheads, and flint and bronze arrowheads. They have also found bones in extraordinary numbers: the remains of at least five horses and more than 100 men. Bones from hundreds more may remain unexcavated, and thousands of others may have fought but survived.

“If our hypothesis is correct that all of the finds belong to the same event, we’re dealing with a conflict of a scale hitherto completely unknown north of the Alps,” says dig co-director Thomas Terberger, an archaeologist at the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage in Hannover. “There’s nothing to compare it to.” It may even be the earliest direct evidence—with weapons and warriors together—of a battle this size anywhere in the ancient world.

Northern Europe in the Bronze Age was long dismissed as a backwater, overshadowed by more sophisticated civilizations in the Near East and Greece. Bronze itself, created in the Near East around 3200 B.C.E., took 1000 years to arrive here. But Tollense’s scale suggests more organization—and more violence—than once thought. “We had considered scenarios of raids, with small groups of young men killing and stealing food, but to imagine such a big battle with thousands of people is very surprising,” says Svend Hansen, head of the German Archaeological Institute’s (DAI’s) Eurasia Department in Berlin. The well-preserved bones and artifacts add detail to this picture of Bronze Age sophistication, pointing to the existence of a trained warrior class and suggesting that people from across Europe joined the bloody fray.

There’s little disagreement now that Tollense is something special. “When it comes to the Bronze Age, we’ve been missing a smoking gun, where we have a battlefield and dead people and weapons all together,” says University College Dublin (UCD) archaeologist Barry Molloy. “This is that smoking gun.”

At the time of the battle, northern Europe seems to have been devoid of towns or even small villages. As far as archaeologists can tell, people here were loosely connected culturally to Scandinavia and lived with their extended families on individual farmsteads, with a population density of fewer than five people per square kilometer. The closest known large settlement around this time is more than 350 kilometers to the southeast, in Watenstedt. It was a landscape not unlike agrarian parts of Europe today, except without roads, telephones, or radio.

And yet chemical tracers in the remains suggest that most of the Tollense warriors came from hundreds of kilometers away. The isotopes in your teeth reflect those in the food and water you ingest during childhood, which in turn mirror the surrounding geology—a marker of where you grew up. Retired University of Wisconsin, Madison, archaeologist Doug Price analyzed strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotopes in 20 teeth from Tollense. Just a few showed values typical of the northern European plain, which sprawls from Holland to Poland. The other teeth came from farther afield, although Price can’t yet pin down exactly where. “The range of isotope values is really large,” he says. “We can make a good argument that the dead came from a lot of different places.”

As University of Aarhus’s Vandkilde puts it: “It’s an army like the one described in Homeric epics, made up of smaller war bands that gathered to sack Troy”—an event thought to have happened fewer than 100 years later, in 1184 B.C.E. That suggests an unexpectedly widespread social organization, Jantzen says. “To organize a battle like this over tremendous distances and gather all these people in one place was a tremendous accomplishment,” he says.

 

9 Comments

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9 responses to “Not necessarily relevant to anything in today’s news, but fascinating

  1. Tattycoram

    I had said goodbye to my last Easter guests, and hunkered down in a comfy sofa and read this article. It took a whole glass of wine. Then I came here –and you’d just read it too! Happy Easter.

  2. In 1974 Newport Restoration Project our Archaeologist confirmed inscriptions on granite outcrop 1/4 mile from Narragansett Bay…..were at a minimum 1,500 BC….written in Norse….

    • Anonymous

      Wow. I didn’t know that Norse Code was invented that long ago. BTW, I think I am going to vote for Bernie. 🙂

    • Mickster🍀🍀🍀

      BC?? No, not BC, Peter. You might want to read that again.

    • Mickster🍀🍀🍀

      And sometimes I think a lot of what you write is in Norse… or Greek, because it’s all Greek to me. 🐇🐇🐇

    • desidog

      There was no Norse yet in 1500 BC… and 2,000 years before the Vikings made it to England? Hoax.

  3. Anonymous

    Ten thousand Swedes ran through the weeds at the
    Battle of Copenhagen.
    Ten thousand Swedes ran through the weeds
    Chased by one Norwegian

  4. Fred2

    Given that A, Men, and B. Generally younger men, fight battles and are going to travel 100’s of miles to do it, C. given the low population density, D. Given there are no good , close sea routes where ships, even small ones, could provide logistical support (food, kids, an army marches on it’s belly) and 4000 fighting men would consume supplies like a cloud of locusts – and you have no roads, rails, or ships to supply them….

    Look at the Classical greeks, the armies tended to be small and not stay in field very long. The Persians of Xerxes time managed to support large armies by marching close to the sea and drawing supplies from the entire Black Sea and Eastern Med. by boats.

    4000 men at one battle? Wow. That’s a _lot_ of people for the bronze age.

    I’m sure the story behind that battle rivals the Iliad or the Anabasis, too bad no one wrote it down. ( Iliad is a better analogy but even that is smaller armies and the long siege and warfare is predicated on supplies being run into Troy from black sea Allies and ship-resupply for the Greeks.)

    ( I’ve always been fascinating by the semi legendary history of the semi- nomad Goths & company in what is southern Steppe / far Eastern Europe that antedate them showing up as entire nations on the borders of the late Roman empire. That’s murky and badly documented. This is even murkier.)

  5. Anonymous

    Hate to say it, but, sounds like Isis fighters congregating in Syria/Afgan/Iraq/Belgium